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GENETIC TESTING & MOLECULAR ONCOLOGY

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that diagnose transformation in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can explain or rule out a suspicious genetic condition or help to resolve a person’s chance of progress or passing on a genetic disorder.

Methods of Genetic Testing

  • Molecular genetic tests (or gene tests) study single genes or short lengths of DNA to diagnose variations that lead to a genetic disorder.
  • Chromosomal genetic tests evaluate whole chromosomes or long lengths of DNA to see if there are huge genetic changes, such as an extra copy of a chromosome, that cause a historical condition.
  • Biochemical genetic tests study the amount or activity level of proteins; abnormalities in either can indicate changes to the DNA that result in a genetic disorder.

Genetic testing is spontaneous. Because testing has profit as well as modifications and risks, the agreement about whether to be tested is a personal and complex one. A geneticist or genetic counselor can help by providing information about the pros and cons of the test and discussing the social and emotional aspects of testing.

Genetic testing can provide info about a person's genes and chromosomes.

Types of Testing:
  • Newborn screening
  • Diagnostic testing
  • Carrier testing
  • Prenatal testing
  • Preimplantation testing
  • Predictive and presymptomatic testing
  • Forensic testing

Before a person has a genetic test, it is considered crucial that they understand the benefits and conditions of the tests, as well as the desirable residual of the results. The results of genetic testing may bring with them the need to make important, life-changing decisions. For example, if parents find they have a high chance of passing on a genetic condition to their children, they must decide whether or not they should try for a baby. As a result, historical testing goes hand- in-hand with hereditary counseling’s, both before and after testing.

Genetic counseling
  • Helps prepare people for the possible outcomes of a historical test
  • Helps patients to recognize the results once they secure them
  • Gives patients the hope to talk through their interests and make informed decisions about what their next steps are going to be.
Limitations of Genetic Testing

Many of the uncertainties identified with genetic testing involve with the emotional, social, or financial importance of the test results. People may feel annoyed, depressed, nervous, or sorry about their results. The potential troublesome impact of genetic testing has led to an increasing awareness of a "right not to know". In some cases, historical testing creates pressure within a family because the results can confess info about other family members in addition to the person who is tested. The possibility of genetic inequity in employment or insurance is also mattered. Some individuals avoid genetic testing out of anxiety it will affect their capability to purchase insurance or find a job.
Genetic testing can provide only defined information about an inherited condition. The test often can't determine if a person will show symptoms of a disorder, how severe the symptoms will be, or whether the disorder will progress over time. Another major limitation is the loss of treatment design for many genetic disorders once they are diagnosed.
Another limitation to genetic testing for a hereditary linked cancer, is the variants of unknown clinical significance. Because the human genre has over 22,000 genes, there are 3.5 million variants in the average person's genome. These variants of unknown clinical significance means there is a change in the DNA sequence, however the increase for cancer is unclear because it is unknown if the change affects the gene's function.
A genetics professional can explain in fact the benefits, risks, and limitations of a particular test. It is necessary that any person who is considering genetic testing understand and weigh these factors before making a decision.

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